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Intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Harris L, Hamilton S, Azevedo LB, Olajide J, De Brún C, Waller G, Whittaker V, Sharp T, Lean M, Hankey C, Ells L.
JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2018 Feb;16(2):507-547. doi: 10.11124/JBISRIR-2016-003248.
PMID: 29419624

“Conclusions: Intermittent energy restriction may be an effective strategy for the treatment of overweight and obesity. Intermittent energy restriction was comparable to continuous energy restriction for short term weight loss in overweight and obese adults. Intermittent energy restriction was shown to be more effective than no treatment, however, this should be interpreted cautiously due to the small number of studies and future research is warranted to confirm the findings of this review.”


Metabolic Impact of Intermittent Fasting in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Interventional Studies.
Borgundvaag E, Mak J, Kramer CK. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Mar 8;106(3):902-911. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa926.
PMID: 33319233
“Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that IF is associated with greater weight loss in patients with T2DM compared with a standard diet, with a similar impact on glycemic control.”


Effectiveness of an intermittent fasting diet versus continuous energy restriction on anthropometric measurements, body composition and lipid profile in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis.
Enríquez Guerrero A, San Mauro Martín I, Garicano Vilar E, Camina Martín MA.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021 Jul;75(7):1024-1039. doi: 10.1038/s41430-020-00821-1. Epub 2020 Dec 9.
PMID: 33293678 Review.

“Overall, IF diets were associated with higher weight loss in four studies and similar reduction in waist circumference in one study, compared with a CER regimen. Fat mass tended to decrease more in the IF groups in five studies. However, the lean and muscle mass loss was similar in both groups. Only three studies observed significant differences in lipid profile variables, mostly in the IF groups. Adherence to the diet was inconclusive. An IF diet may provide a benefit by improving anthropometry, body composition, and lipid profile in overweight or obese adult population, likewise a CER diet.”


Intermittent fasting versus continuous energy-restricted diet for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome for glycemic control: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Wang X, Li Q, Liu Y, Jiang H, Chen W.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2021 Sep;179:109003. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2021.109003. Epub 2021 Aug 12.
PMID: 34391831 Review.
“Conclusions: IF is a safe diet pattern and could be implemented for patients with T2DM or metabolic syndrome. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to verify the effectiveness and safety of IF in patients with T2DM.”


Effects of intermittent fasting and energy-restricted diets on lipid profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Meng H, Zhu L, Kord-Varkaneh H, O Santos H, Tinsley GM, Fu P.
Nutrition. 2020 Sep;77:110801. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2020.110801. Epub 2020 Mar 12.
PMID: 32428841 Review.
OBJECTIVES: To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review and meta-analysis has evaluated the cholesterol-lowering effects of intermittent fasting (IF) and energy-restricted diets (ERD) compared with control groups.
“Conclusions: Relative to a non-diet control, IF and ERD are effective for the improvement of circulating TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations, but have no meaningful effects on HDL-C concentration. These effects are influenced by several factors that may inform clinical practice and future research. The present results suggest that these dietary practices are a means of enhancing the lipid profile in humans.”

Enkeltstudier Mattson MP, Longo VD, Harvie M. Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes. Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Oct;39:46-58. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.10.005. Epub 2016 Oct 31. PMID: 27810402; PMCID: PMC5411330. Golbidi S, Daiber A, Korac B, Li H, Essop MF, Laher I. Health Benefits of Fasting and Caloric Restriction. Curr Diab Rep. 2017 Oct 23;17(12):123. doi: 10.1007/s11892-017-0951-7. PMID: 29063418. Vil utsatt frokost gi samme effekt som intermitted fasting? Will Delaying Breakfast Mitigate the Metabolic Health Benefits of Time-Restricted Eating?

IF og metabolsk syndrom

Hvordan måltidsrytme assosieres med BMI 2017
Kahleova H, Lloren JI, Mashchak A, Hill M, Fraser GE. Meal Frequency and Timing Are Associated with Changes in Body Mass Index in Adventist Health Study 2. J Nutr. 2017 Sep;147(9):1722-1728. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.244749. Epub 2017 Jul 12. PMID: 28701389; PMCID: PMC5572489. Kahleova H, Lloren JI, Mashchak A, Hill M, Fraser GE. Meal Frequency and Timing Are Associated with Changes in Body Mass Index in Adventist Health Study 2. J Nutr. 2017 Sep;147(9):1722-1728. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.244749. Epub 2017 Jul 12. PMID: 28701389; PMCID: PMC5572489.
“Conclusions: Our results suggest that in relatively healthy adults, eating less frequently, no snacking, consuming breakfast, and eating the largest meal in the morning may be effective methods for preventing long-term weight gain. Eating breakfast and lunch 5-6 h apart and making the overnight fast last 18-19 h may be a useful practical strategy.”

Kan frokost hjelpe til med vektnedgang? Viser til både fysisk og psykisk aspekt D G Schlundt, J O Hill, T Sbrocco, J Pope-Cordle, T Sharp, The role of breakfast In the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 55, Issue 3, March 1992, Pages 645–651,

Hvordan en godt sammensatt frokost mulig kan påvirke ghrelin utover dagen, bedre kontroll Daniela Jakubowicz, Oren Froy, Julio Wainstein, Mona Boaz,
Meal timing and composition influence ghrelin levels, appetite scores and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults,
Steroids, Volume 77, Issue 4,2012, Pages 323-331, ISSN 0039-128X,
A high carbohydrate and protein breakfast may prevent weight regain by reducing diet-induced compensatory changes in hunger, cravings and ghrelin suppression. To achieve long-term weight loss, meal timing and macronutrient composition must counteract these compensatory mechanisms which encourage weight regain after weight loss.
Keywords: Meal timing; Diet induced weight loss; Weight regain; Craving; Ghrelin suppression”

Rolle av faste, 2019

Paoli A, Tinsley G, Bianco A, Moro T.
The Influence of Meal Frequency and Timing on Health in Humans: The Role of Fasting.
Nutrients. 2019 Mar 28;11(4):719. doi: 10.3390/nu11040719. PMID: 30925707; PMCID: PMC6520689.
“A regular meal pattern including breakfast consumption, consuming a higher proportion of energy early in the day, reduced meal frequency (i.e., 2⁻3 meals/day), and regular fasting periods may provide physiological benefits such as reduced inflammation, improved circadian rhythmicity, increased autophagy and stress resistance, and modulation of the gut microbiota.”


kroppens insulinregulering

Kognitiv effekt av frokost

Neppe forskjell på å spise eller ikke spise frokost

Definisjon av snacks og mellommåltider, og hva har det å si for oss
Hess JM, Slavin JL. The benefits of defining “snacks”. Physiol Behav. 2018 Sep 1;193(Pt B):284-287. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.04.019. Epub 2018 Apr 18. PMID: 29678598.

Without a definition of “snack” and a body of research using methodologically rigorous protocols, determining the health impact of eating a “snack” will continue to elude the nutrition research community and prevent the development of evidence-based policies about snacking that support public health.

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